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Glossary

Glossary

A
Asbestos insulated, 200°C dry location, only for leads within apparatus or within raceway to apparatus.
A.C.
Alternating Current (a.c.). Current in which the charge-flow periodically reverses and is represented by: I = Iº cos (2 f %2B ^) where, I is the current, Iº is the amplitude, f the frequency, the phase angle.
AA
Aluminum Association
AA-1350
Electrical-grade, commercially pure aluminum.
AA-8000
Electrical-grade aluminum alloy conductor material.
AA-8176
The AA-8000 Series aluminum alloy developed and used by Southwire Company, LLC.
AAAC
All Aluminum Alloy Conductor, usually used to refer to 6201 aluminum alloy.
AAC
All Aluminum Conductor
AAR
Association of American Railroads
AASC
Aluminum All Stranded Conductors
AC
Armored Cable, 2,3 or 4 conductor, #14 to # 1 AWG, 600 volt rated or less, dry locations only, used in accordance with N.E.C. Article #320
AC90
Armoured Cable, 90° C rated, dry locations
ACAR
Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced
ACIC
Armoured Control and Instrumentation Cable, can have various temperature and voltage ratings
ACM
designation for Aluminum Conductor Material (8000 series of aluminum alloys)
ACSR
Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced
ACT
A multiple conductor thermoplastic insulated cable with steel spiralled interlocking armour. The armour has the appearance of flexible conduit.
ACWU
Armored Cable, Wet rated, direct burial (U)
AF
Single conductor asbestos insulated fixture wire 150°C.
AI
Impregnated asbestos insulated, application same as type AF.
AIA
Impregnated asbestos with braid, application same as for type AI and open wiring.
ALS
A type of cable consisting of insulated conductors enclosed in a continuous, closely fitting aluminum tube.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
ANSI X12

Is the official designation of the U.S. national standards body for the development and maintenance of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The group was founded in 1979, and is an accredited standards committee under the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The acronym stands for "American National Standards Institute Accredited Standards Committee X12", with the designation of X12 being a sequential designator assigned by ANSI at the time of accreditation with no other significance.

AS2

A specification about how to transport data securely and reliably over the Internet. Security is achieved by using digital certificates and encryption.

ASC
Aluminum Stranded Conductors
ASLC
Airport Series Lighting Cable – 5000 volt, 90° C wet rated, for airport runways etc.
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASTA
United Kingdom approval agency.
ASTM
The American Society for Testing and Materials, a non-profit industry-wide organization which publishes standards, methods of test, recommended practices, definitions and other related material.
AVA
Asbestos and varnished Cambric insulated, 110°C dry locations.
AVB
Asbestos and varnished Cambric insulated, 90°C dry locations.
AVL
Asbestos and varnished Cambric uninsulated, 110°C dry location lead sheathed.
AWAC
A cable consisting of a composite of aluminum strands and aluminum clad strands.
AWM
UL designation for appliance wiring material.
AZ
A thin coating of some metal part (usually steel or iron) with aluminum by electroplating.
Abrasion Resistance
Ability of a wire, cable or material to resist surface wear.
Accelerated Aging
A test that attempts to duplicate long-time environmental aging in comparatively short time spans.
Accelerator
A chemical additive which hastens a chemical reaction under specific conditions.
Activator
A chemical additive used to initiate the chemical reaction in a specific chemical mixture.
Adhesive-Bonded
Cables bonded by adding an adhesive coating to the surface of the cable components, then joining and curing the adhesive to form a cable. See Bonded Cables.
Adjacent Conductor
Any conductor next to another conductor either in the same multi-conductor cable or in adjacent layers.
Admittance
The measure of the ease with which an alternative current flows in a circuit. The reciprocal of impedance.
Aerial Cable
A cable suspended in the air on poles or other overhead structure.
Aging
The change in properties of a material with time under specific conditions.
Air Core Cable
A cable in which the interstices in the cable core are not filled with a moisture barrier
Aircraft Wire
An electrical wire primarily designed for extreme conditions (temperature, altitude, solvents, fuels, etc.) of airborne equipment.
Al
The chemical symbol for aluminum.
Alligator Clip
A mechanical device shaped like alligator jaws, used as a temporary connection on the end of interconnection wire.
Alloy
A metal formed by combining two or more different metals to obtain desirable properties.
Alternating Current
An electric current that continually reverses its direction giving a definite plus and minus wave form at fixed intervals.
Aluminum-Steel Conductor
A composite conductor made up of a combination of aluminum and steel wires.
Alumoweld®
A thick aluminum coating molded on a high strength steel core used for its strength, conductive and weight characteristics. An aluminum clad steel wire. *United States Alumoweld Company
Ambient Temperature
The temperature of a medium (gas or liquid) surrounding an object.
American Wire Gauge (AWG)
The standard system used for designating wire diameter. The lower the AWG number, the larger the diameter. Also called the Brown and Sharpe (B&S) Wire Gauge.
Ampacity
See Current-Carrying Capacity.
Ampere
The unit of current. One ampere is the current flowing through one ohm of resistance at one volt potential.
Ampere’s Law
The magnetic intensity at any point near a current-carrying conductor can be computed on the assumption that each infinitesimal length of the conductor produces at the point of an infinitesimal magnetic density. The resulting magnetic intensity at the point is the vector sum of the contributions of all the elements of the conductor.
Analog
Transmission data densities by continuously variable quantities.
Anneal
The process of controlled heating and cooling of a metal. In a wire and cable products, copper and aluminum are annealed to increase flexibility while maintaining adequate strength.
Annular Conductor
A number of wires stranded in three reversed concentric layers around a core.
Annunciator
signal and bell wire, low voltage, generally PVC insulated
Anti-Oxidant
A substance which prevents or slows down oxidation of material exposed to air.
Appliance Wire and Cable
A classification covering insulated wire and cable for internal wiring of appliances and equipment.
Arc Resistance
The time required for an arc to establish a conductive path in a material.
Armor
The outer-most layer of a cable applied for mechanical protection usually consisting of layer(s) of metallic tape, braid, or served wires.
Armored Cable
A cable provided with a wrapping of metal for mechanical protection.
Attenuation
Power loss in an electrical system. In cables, generally expressed in db per unit length, usually 100 ft.
Audio Frequency
The range of frequencies audible to the human ear, usually 20-20,000 Hz.
B & S Gauge
The same as American Wire Gauge (AWG).
BCF
Billion Conductor Feet. A quantity derived by multiplying the number of conductors in a cable by the amount of cable. Used to indicate plant capacity or an annual requirement.
Band Marking
A continuous circumferential band applied to a conductor at regular intervals for identification.
Band Width
The frequency range of electrical signals transmitted.
Banded Cable
Two or more cables banded together by stainless steel strapping.
Barrel-Packed
Method of coiling into a fiber drum for shipment.
Belt
Number of layers of insulation on a conductor or number of layers of jacket on a cable.
Belted-Type Cable
Multiple conductor cable having a layer of insulation over the assembled insulated conductors.
Bend Radius
The radius of the bend (usually designated as a multiple of product diameter) at which a wire product can be safely bent without significantly affecting its ability to function.
Bifilar
Made non-inductive by winding together (as one wire) two wires carrying current in opposite directions.
Bimetallic Wire
A wire formed of two different metals joined together (not alloyed). It can include wire with a steel core clad wire, plated or coated wire.
Binder
A spirally served tape or thread used for holding assembled cable components in place awaiting subsequent manufacturing operations.
Binding Post
A device for clamping or holding electrical conductors in a rigid position.
Bobbins
Metal spools used for taking up drawn wire and subsequently used for payout packages in cabling and stranding equipment.
Bond Strength
Amount of adhesion between bonded surfaces, e.g. in cemented ribbon cable.
Bondable Wire
An insulated wire treated to facilitate adherence to materials such as potting compounds. Also, magnet wires used in making coils when bonding the turns together is desired.
Bonded Cable
Cable consisting of pre-insulated conductors or multiconductor components laid in parallel and bonded into a flat cable. See Adhesive-Bonded.
Bonded Construction
An insulation construction in which the glass braid and nylon jacket are bonded together.
Booster
A device inserted into a line (or cable) to increase the voltage.
Boot
(1) Protective covering over a cable wire, or connector in addition to the normal jacketing or insulation. (2) A form placed around wire termination of a multiple-contact connector to contain the liquid potting compound before it hardens.
Braid
A fibrous or metallic group of filaments interwoven in a cylindrical shape to form a covering over one or more wires.
Braid Angle
The smaller of the two angles, formed by the shielding strand and, is the axis of the cable being shielded.
Braid Carrier
A spool or bobbin on a braid which holds one group of strands or filaments consisting of a specific number of ends. The carrier revolves during braiding operations.
Braid Ends
The number of strands used to make up one carrier. The strands are wound side by side on the carrier bobbin and lie parallel in the finished braid.
Braiding Machine
Machine used to apply braids to wire and cable and to produce braided sleeving and braids for tying or lacing purposes. Braiding machines are identified by the number of carriers.
Brake Wire
Wires used in the manufacture of both home and truck trailers to supply current to the electrical brake system.
Branch Circuit
The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s).
Breakdown (Puncture)
A disruptive discharge through the insulation.
Breakdown Voltage
The voltage at which the insulation between two conductors breaks down.
Bunched Stranding
A group of strands twisted together in a random manner and the same direction without regard to geometric arrangement of specific strands.
Buncher
A machine that twists wires together in random arrangement.
Bundle
A number of fiber optics grouped together, usually carrying a common signal.
Buried Cable
A cable installed directly in the earth without use of underground conduit. Also called Direct Burial Cable.
Bus
Wire used to connect two terminals inside of an electrical unit.
Bushing
A mechanical device used as a lining for an opening to prevent abrasion to wire and cable.
Butt
Joining of two conductors end-to-end, with no overlap and with the axes in line.
Butt Splice
A splice wherein two wires from opposite ends butt against each other, or against a stop, in the center of a splice.
Butt Wrap
Tape wrapped around an object or conductor edge-to-edge.
Byte
Typically a group of eight binary digits.
C
Centigrade or Celsius
C-SJ
Same as SJ except extra-flexible conductor.
C-SJO
Same as SJO except extra-flexible conductor.
CATV
Community Antenna Television
CBO
Rubber-insulated Brewery Cord.
CCTV
Closed-Circuit Television
CEBEC
Belgium Approval Agency; Comite Electrotechnique Belge Service de la Marque.
CEE
European Standards Agency; International Commission on Rules for the Approval of Electrical Equipment.
CENELEC
European Standards Agency; European Committee for Electrotechnical Norms.
CIC
Control and Instrumentation Cable, same as ACIC except not armoured
CL Series
Coil Lead Wire – CL is followed by a number series indicating it’s rated baking temperature
CMA
Circular-Mil Area
CSA
Canadian Standards Association, a non-profit independent organization which operates a listing service for electrical and electronic materials and equipment. The Canadian counterpart of the Underwriters Laboratories.
CV
Continuous Vulcanization
Cable
A stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings (single-conductor cable) or a combination of conductors (multiple-conductor cable). In fiber optics, a jacketed fiber or jacketed bundle in a form which can be terminated.
Cable Assembly
Typically, the cable and associated connectors ready to install.
Cable Clamp
A device used to give mechanical support to the wire bundle or cable at the rear of a plug or receptacle.
Cable Clamp Adapter
A mechanical adapter that attaches to the rear of a plug or receptacle to allow the attachment of a cable clamp.
Cable Core
The portion of an insulated cable lying under a protective covering.
Cable Core Binder
A wrapping of tapes or cords around the conductors of a multiple conductor cable used to hold them together.
Cable Filler
The material used in multiple conductor cables to occupy the interslices formed by the assembly of the insulated conductors, thus forming a cable core.
Cable Sheath
The protective covering applied to cables.
Cable Tray
A rigid structural system used to support cables and raceways. Types of cable trays include ladder, ventilated trough, ventilated channel and solid bottom.
Cable Vulcanizer
Compression molding machine used to repair cable jacketing that has had a part removed for splicing, to add connectors and other devices or to replace damaged sections.
Cabling
Twisting together two or more insulated conductors by machine to form a cable. In fiber optics, a method by which a group or bundle of fibers is mechanically assembled.
Cabling Factor
Used in the formula for calculating the diameter of an unshielded, unjacketed cable. D=Kd, where D is the cable diameter, K is the factor and d is the diameter of one insulated conductor.
Calibration
The process of setting a measurement instrument by use of standards.
Capacitance
The ratio of the electrostatic charge on a conductor to the potential difference between the conductors required to maintain that charge.
Capacitance, Direct
The capacitance measured from one conductor to another conductor through a single insulating layer.
Capacitance, Mutual
The capacitance between two conductors (typically of a pair) with all other conductors, including shield and short circuited to ground.
Carrier
The woven element of a braid consisting of one or more ends (strands) which creates the interlaced effect. Also, a spindle, spool, tube or bobbin (on a braiding machine) containing yarn or wire, employed as a braid.
Certificate of Compliance (C of C)
A written statement, normally generated by a Quality Control Department, which states that the product being shipped meets customer’s specifications.
Certified Test Report (CTR)
A report reflecting actual test data on the cable shipped. Tests are normally conducted by the Quality Control Department and show that the product being shipped meets the required test specifications.
Characteristic Impedance
The impedance that when connected to the output terminals of a transmission line, of any length, makes the line appear indefinitely long.
Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE)
Rubbery polymer used for insulation and jacketing of wire and cable. Manufactured by Dow Chemical under the trade name Tyrin.
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSPE)
A rubbery polymer used for insulations and jackets. Manufactured by E.l. DuPont under the trade name Hypalon.
Cigarette Wrap
Tape insulation wrapped longitudinally instead of spirally over a conductor.
Circuit
A complete path over which electrons can flow from the negative terminals of a voltage source through parts and wires to the positive terminals of the same voltage source.
Circuit Breaker
A device that can be used to manually open or close a circuit and to automatically open a circuit at a predetermined level of overcurrent without damage to itself.
Circuit Sizes
A popular term for building wire sizes 14 through 10 AWG.
Circuit Voltage
The root-mean-square (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit.
Circular Mil
The area of a circle one mil (.001") in diameter; 7.854 x 10-7 sq. in. Used in expressing wire cross sectional areas.
Cladding
Method of applying a layer of metal over another metal whereby the junction of the two metals is continuously welded. In fiber optics, a sheathing intimately in contact with the core of a higher refractive index material which serves to provide optical insulation and protection to the reflection interface.
Closed End Splice
An insulated splice in which two or more wires overlap and enter the splice from the same end of the barrel.
Coated Copper
A copper conductor which has been coated with a metallic substance. A tin coating is applied to protect copper from chemical attack by sulfur-based insulation compounds; nickel coating is sometimes used with conductors rated for extremely high temperatures.
Coaxial Cable
A cable consisting of two cylindrical conductors with a common axis, separated by a dielectric.
Coaxial Connector
A connector that has a coaxial construction and is used with coaxial cable.
Coil Effect
The inductive effect exhibited by a spiral-wrapped shield, especially above audio frequencies.
Cold Bend
Generally refers to a test to determine cable or wire characteristics at low temperatures.
Cold Flow
Permanent deformation of the insulation due to mechanical force of pressure (not due to heat softening).
Color Code
A color system for wire or circuit identification by use of solid colors, tracer braids, surface printing, etc.
Combination Unilay
A stranding configuration that uses two strand sizes to achieve a 3% reduction in the conductor diameter without compression.
Common Axis Cabling
In multiple cable constructions, a twisting of all conductors about a “common axis” to result in smaller diameter constructions. Tends to result in greater susceptance to electromagnetic and electrostatic interference.
Compact Conductor
Stranded conductor rolled to deform the round wires to fill the normal interstices between the wires in a strand.
Compact Stranding
A stranding configuration with concentric strands in which each layer is passed through a compacting die to reduce the conductor diameter by approximately 10%.
Composite (Clad) Wire
A wire having a core of one metal with a fused outer shell of different metals.
Composite Conductor
Two or more strands of different metals assembled and operated in parallel.
Compound
An insulating or jacketing material made by mixing two or more ingredients.
Compressed
A stranding configuration with concentric strands in which all layers or the outer layer only is passed through a die to reduce the conductor diameter by 3%.
Compression Cable
A pipe-type cable in which the pressure medium is separated from the insulation by a membrane or sheath.­­­­which a wire has been inserted.
Contact Size
The largest size wire which can be used with the specific contact. Also, the diameter of the engagement end of the pin.
Continuity Check
A test to determine whether electrical current flows continuously throughout the length of a single wire or individual wires in a cable.
Continuous Load
An electrical load in which the maximum current is expected to continue for three hours or more.
Continuous Vulcanization
Simultaneous extrusion and vulcanization of rubber-like wire coating materials.
Contrahelical
Cable spiraling in an opposite direction than the preceding layer within a wire or cable.
Control Cable
A multiconductor cable made for operation in control of signal circuits.
Controlled Impedance Cable
Package of two or more insulated conductors where impedance measurements between respective conductors are kept essentially constant throughout the entire length.
Conventional Concentric
A stranding configuration in which individual wire are stranded concentrically with no reduction in overall diameter. Typically used for bare conductors.
Copolymer
A compound resulting from the polymerization of two different monomers.
Copper-Clad
Steel with a coating of copper welded to it before drawing as opposed to copper-plated. Synonymous with Copperweld.
Copperweld
The trade name of Flexo Wire Division (Copperweld Steel Corp.) for their copper-clad steel conductors.
Cord
A small, flexible insulated cable.
Cord Set
Portable cords fitted with a wiring device at one or both ends.
Core
In cables, a component or assembly of components over which other materials are applied, such as (additional components) shield, sheath or armor. In fiber optics, the transparent glass or plastic section with a highly refractive index through which the light travels by internal reflections.
Core Wire
The center strand of a stranded conductor, around which the other strands are wrapped in spiral layers.
Corona
A discharge due to ionization of air around a conductor due to a potential gradient exceeding a certain critical value.
Corona Resistance
The time that the insulation will withstand a specified level of field intensified ionization that does not result in the immediate complete breakdown of the insulation.
Corrosion
The destruction of the surface of a metal by chemical reaction.
Coverage
The calculated percentage which defines the completeness with which a metal braid covers the underlying surface. The higher percentage of coverage, the greater the protection against external interference.
Covering
Textile braid or jacket of rubber, plastics or other materials applied over wire and cables to provide mechanical protection and identification.
Crazing
The minute cracks on the surface of plastic materials.
Creep
The dimensional change with time of a material under load.
Creepage
The conduction of electricity across the surface of a dielectric.
Creepage Path
The path across the surface of a dielectric between two conductors.
Creepage Surface
An insulating surface which provides physical separation as a form of insulation between two electrical conductors of different potential.
Crimp
Act of compressing a connector barrel around a cable in order to make an electrical connection.
Crimp Termination
Connection in which a metal sleeve is secured to a conductor by mechanically crimping the sleeve with pliers, presses or automated crimping machines.
Cross-Linked
Inter-molecular bonds between long-chain thermoplastic polymers due to chemical or electron bombardment. The properties of the resulting thermo-setting material are usually improved.
Cross-Linked Polyethylene (XLPE)
A common thermoset insulation material for building wire and cable. Polyethylene made from petroleum and natural gas undergoes a cross-linking chemical reaction that causes compound molecules to bond, forming heavier molecules with the desired physical and chemical properties.
Cross-Sectional Area (csa)
The area of a conductor exposed by cutting the conductor perpendicularly to its length, expressed in circular-mils, thousands of circular-mil, square inches, or square millimeters.
Crosstalk
Undesired electrical currents in conductors caused by electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling from other conductors or from external sources. Also, leakage of optical power from one optical conductor to another.
Cu
The chemical symbol for copper.
Cure
To change the physical properties of a material by chemical reaction.
Curing Cycle
The time, temperature and pressure required for curing.
Curl
The degree to which a wire tends to form a circle after removal from a spool. An indication of the ability of the wire to be wrapped around posts in long runs.
Current
The rate of transfer of electricity. Practical unit is the ampere which represents the transfer of one coulomb per second. In a simple circuit, current (I) produced by a cell or electromotive force (E) when there is an external resistance (R) and internal resistance (r) is: I=E/R%2Br
Current-Carrying Capacity
The maximum current an insulated conductor can safely carry without exceeding its insulation and jacket temperature limitations.
Cut-Through Resistance
The ability of a material to withstand mechanical pressure usually a sharp edge or small radius without separation.
Cycle
The complete sequence, including reversal, of the flow of an alternating electric current.
D.C.
Direct Current
DBWP
Double Braided WeatherProof cable
DEMKO
Approval agency of Denmark.
DRT
Plastic range and dryer cord (CSA).
Damp Location
An outdoor location that is partially protected from weather or an indoor location subject to a moderate degree of moisture, such as a basement.
Decibel (db)
A unit to express differences of power level. Used to express power gain in amplifiers or power loss in passive circuits or cables.
Dedicated Circuit
In a residence, a 120, 120/240, or 240 volt circuit that is installed to supply power to specific equipment indoors or outdoors, such as a large appliance or heating and air conditioning equipment.
Degree Rise
The amount of increase in temperature caused by the introduction of electricity into a unit.
Delay Line
A cable made to provide very low velocity of propagation with long electrical delay for transmitted signals.
Depth of Crimp
Thickness of the crimped portion of a connector measured between two opposite points on the crimped surface.
Derating Factor
A factor used to reduce the current-carrying capacity of a wire when used in environments other than that for which the value was established.
Design Voltage
Voltage for which a cable is designed.
Dessicant
Water or moisture absorbent material used to prevent moisture from damaging packaged equipment or other merchandise.
Die
A device used in the drawing of a wire; the element through which the wire is drawn, to achieve a predetermined diameter. A mold used to form a plastic compound around a wire or cable.
Dielectric
An insulating medium which intervenes between two conductors and permits electrostatic attraction and repulsion to take place across it.
Dielectric Breakdown
The voltage required to cause an electrical failure or breakthrough of the insulation.
Dielectric Constant (K)
The ratio of the capacitance of a condenser with dielectric between the electrodes to the capacitance when air is between the electrodes. Also called Permittivity and Specific Inductive Capacity.
Dielectric Loss
Power dissipated in an insulating medium as the result of the friction caused by molecular motion when an AC electric field is applied.
Dielectric Strength
The voltage which an insulation can withstand before breakdown occurs. Usually expressed as a voltage gradient (such as volts per mil).
Dielectric Test
A test in which a voltage higher than the rated voltage is applied for a specified time to determine the adequacy of the insulation under normal conditions.
Digital
Transmission data representative by discrete characters.
Dip Coating
An insulating coating applied to the conductor by passing the conductor through an applicator containing liquid insulating medium.
Direct Burial Cable
A cable installed directly in the earth.
Direct Capacitance
The capacitance measured directly from conductor to conductor through a single insulating layer.
Direct Current
An electric current which flows in only one direction.
Direct Current Resistance (DCR)
The resistance offered by any circuit to the flow of direct current.
Direction of Lay
The lateral direction in which the strands of a conductor run over the top of the cable conductor as they recede from an observer looking along the axis of the conductor or cable. Also applies to twisted cable.
Discrete Wiring
Wire or wires having distinct identity and purpose.
Disruptive Discharge
A sudden, large increase in current through an insulation medium due to the complete failure of the medium under the electrostatic stress.
Disturbed Conductor
A conductor that receives energy generated by the field of another conductor or an external source, such as a transformer.
Drain Wires
A number of small gauge bare wires applied concentrically about the insulation shield of a high voltage cable for the purpose of a fault current return path.
Draw Feed Stock
Rod or wire that is subsequently drawn to a smaller size.
Drawing
In wire manufacture, pulling the metal through a die or series of dies to reduce diameter to a specified size.
Dry Location
A location not normally subject to dampness or wetness.
Dual Coaxial Cable
Two individually-insulated conductors laid parallel or twisted and placed within an overall shield and sheath.
Duct
An underground or overhead tube for carrying electrical conductors.
Duplex
Two-way data transmission on a four-wire transmission line.
Duplex Cable
A cable composed of two insulated single-conductor cables twisted together.
Duplex Parallel
Typically used in the thermocouple industry to denote two parallel conductors of dissimilar metals insulated in parallel without twists and jackets. Commonly applied to thermocouple grades and extension wires.
Durometer
A measure of hardness.
Duty Rating
A rating that describes the ability of an electric device to carry a current load for a given frequency of use.
E
Symbol for voltage. Used to represent direct voltage or the effective (root-mean-square) value of an alternating voltage.
EC
Electrical Conductor (electrical grade aluminum - now known as Alloy 1350).
EFTS
Electronic Funds Transfer System
EIA
Electronic Industries Association
EMI
ElectroMagnetic Interference
EPDM
Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Monomer rubber
EPR
Ethylene-Propylene Rubber.
ESTA
Australian approval agency; Electricity Trust of South Australia.
ETPC
Electrolytic Tough Pitch C­opper. It has a minimum conductivity of 99.9%.
EZ
A type of SER cable with two insulated conductors and one stranded bare conductor twisted together under a PVC jacket.
Eccentricity
Like concentricity, a measure of the center of a conductor’s location with respect to the circular cross-section of the insulation. Expressed as a percentage of displacement of one circle within the other.
Eddy Current
Circulating currents induced in conducting materials by varying magnetic fields.
Elastomer
A rubber or rubber-like material which will stretch repeatedly to 200 percent or more and return rapidly and with force to its approximate original shape.
Electro-Tinned
Electrolytes process of tinning wire using pure tin.
Electrode
A conductor through which a current enters or leaves a nonmetallic conductor.
Electromagnetic
Magnetism caused by the flow of an electric current.
Electromagnetic Coupling
Energy transfer by means of a varying magnetic field.
Electromagnetic Field
A rapidly moving electric field and its associated moving magnetic field.
Electromagnetic Induction
The production of a voltage in a coil due to a change in the number of magnetic lines of force (flux linkages) passing through the coil..
Electromotive Force (e.m.f.)
Pressure or voltage. The force which causes current to flow in a circuit.
Electronic Wire and Cable
A length of conductive or semiconductive material used in an electronic application.
Electroplate
The term used to indicate the application of a metallic coating on a surface by means of an electrolytic action.
Elongation
The fractional increase in the length of a material stressed in tension.
Embossing
Marker identification by means of thermal indentation leaving raised lettering on the sheath material of cable.
Emergency Overload
Load which occurs when larger-than-normal currents are carried through a cable or wire over a certain period of time.
Enameled Wire
A conductor with a baked-on enamel film insulation. In addition to magnet wire, enameled insulation is used on thermocouple-type wires and other wires.
Ends
In braiding, the number of essentially parallel wires or threads on a carrier.
Energize
To apply rated voltage to a circuit or device in order to activate it.
Equilay
More than one layer of helically-laid wires with the direction of lay reversed for successive layers, but with the length of lay the same for each layer.
Etched Wire
A process applied to fluoroplastic wire in which the wire is passed through a sodium bath to create a rough surface to allow epoxy resin to bond the fluoroplastic.
Ethylene Copolymers (Non-Halogen)
An insulation material that combines attributes of polyethylene and polypropylene to provide a high level of flame resistance and low smoke production.
External Interference
The effects of electrical waves or fields which cause sounds other than the desired signal; static.
External Wiring
Electronic wiring which interconnects subsystems within the system.
Extruded Cable
Cable with conductors which are uniformly insulated and formed by applying a homogeneous insulated material in a continuous extrusion process.
Extrusion
Method of continuously forcing plastic, rubber or elastomer material through an orifice to apply insulation or jacketing over a conductor or cable core.
FAA
Federal Aeronautics Administration
FAS
Fire Alarm and Signal cable
FEP
Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene
FF
Rubber insulated fixture wire 60°C, 300V.
FI
Approval agency of Finland; Electrical Inspectorate.
FPM
Feet Per Minute
FR-1
A flammability rating established by Underwriters Laboratories for wire and cable that pass a specially-designed vertical flame test.
Factor of Assurance
The ratio of the voltage of wire for cable insulation is tested to that which is used.
Farad
A unit of electrical capacity.
Fatigue Resistance
Resistance to metal crystallization which causes conductors or wires to break from flexing.
Fault Current
The current that flows as a result of a short-circuit condition.
Feeder
The circuit conductors between service equipment and the final branch circuit overcurrent device.
Feedthrough
(1) A conductor that connects patterns on opposite sides of a PCB. Also called Interfacial Connection. (2) A connector or terminal block, usually having double-ended terminals, which permit simple distribution and bussing of electrical circuits.
Feedthrough Insulators
Insulators that carry a metal conductor through the chassis while preventing the ‘hot’ lead from shorting to the ground chassis.
Ferrule
A short tube used to make solderless connections to shielded or coaxial cable.
Fiber
A thread or thread-like structure. Also, a single discrete element used to transmit optical (light wave) information.
Fiber Optics
A lightwave or optical communications system in which electrical information is converted to light energy transmitted to another location through optical fibers and there is converted back into electrical information.
Fiber Tubing
A loose, crush-resistant cylinder applied over individual fibers to provide mechanical protection.
Field
An area of influence around a magnet or electric charge.
Field Coil
A suitable insulated winding mounted on a field pole to magnetize it.
Figure 8 Cable
An aerial cable configuration where the conductors and the steel strand which support the cable are integrally jacketed. A cross-section of the finished cable approximates the figure “eight.”
Filament
Fiber characterized by extreme length.
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A network protocol used to exchange and manipulate files over a TCP computer network, such as the Internet.

Fill
In conduit or cable tray installations, the portion of the total cross-sectional area of the tray or conduit that can be occupied by conductors or cables.
Filled Cable
A telephone cable construction in which the cable core is filled with a material that will prevent moisture from entering or passing through the cable.
Filler
(1) A material used in multi-conductor cables to occupy large interstices formed by the assembled conductors. (2) An inert substance added to a compound to improve properties or decrease cost.
Film
A thin, plastic sheet.
Fine Stranded Wire
Stranded wire with component strands of 36 AWG or smaller.
Fixture Wire
A conductor used in lighting fixtures or similar equipment and used to connect a lighting fixture to branch circuit conductors. Common types include Type TF (thermoplastic insulated, solid or 7 strand conductor) and Type TFN (thermoplastic-insulated, nylon jacket, solid or 7-strand conductor).
Flame Resistance
The ability of a material not to propagate flame once the heat source is removed.
Flame Retardant
A chemical added to insulation materials to make them less combustible, such as antimony trioxide (PVC) or alumina trihydrate or carbon black (XLPE). Also used to describe flame resistance.
Flammability
The measure of the material’s ability to support combustion.
Flashover
A disruptive discharge around or over the surface of a solid or liquid insulator.
Flat Braid
A woven braid of tinned copper strands rolled flat at time of manufacture to a specified width.
Flat Cable
A cable with two smooth or corrugated, but essentially flat, surfaces.
Flat Conductor
A wire having a rectangular cross-section as opposed to a round or square conductor.
Flat Conductor Cable
A cable with a plurality of flat conductors.
Flex Life
The measurement of the ability of a conductor or cable to withstand repeated bending.
Flexibility
The ease with which a cable may be bent.
Flexible
That quality of a cable or cable component which allows for bending under the influence of outside force, as opposed to limpness which is bending due to the cable’s own weight.
Flexible Fixture Wire
A type of fixture wire with a more flexible stranding configuration than regular fixture wire types. Common types include Type TFF (thermoplastic-insulated, stranded conductor) and Type TFFN (thermoplastic-insulated, nylon jacket, stranded conductor).
Floating
Referring to a circuit which has no connection to ground.
Flux
(1) The lines of force which make up an electrostatic field. (2) The rate of flow of energy across or through a surface. (3) A substance used to promote or facilitate fusion.
Foamed Plastics
Insulation's having a cellular structure.
Foil
A thin, continuous sheet of metal.
Free Connector
A connector for attachment to the free end of a wire or cable.
Frequency
In ac systems, the rate at which the current changes direction, expressed in hertz (cycles per second).
Fungus Resistance
The ability of a conductor or cable assembly to resist physical or electrical degradation caused by fungus growth in wet or damp environments.
Funnel Entry
Flared or widened entrance to a terminal or connector wire barrel.
Fuse Wire
Wire made from an alloy that melts at a relatively low temperature.
Fused Coating
A metallic coating which has been melted and solidified, forming a metallurgical bond to the base material.
Fused Conductors
Individual strands of heavy tinned copper wire stranded together and then bonded together by induction heating.
Fused Spiral Tape
A PTFE insulated hookup wire. The spiral-wrapped conductor is passed through a sintering oven where overlaps are fused together.
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GIGA-Hertz
One billion hertz (109HZ) equal to 1 KMC (1000 megacycles).
GTO
Gast tube sign and oil-burner ignition cable; 5,000V-15,000V.
Galvanizing
A coating of some metal part (usually steel or iron) with zinc by dipping or electroplating.
Galvanometer
An instrument for detecting or measuring small electrical current.
Gas-Filled Cable
A self-contained pressure cable in which the pressure medium is an inert gas having access to the insulation.
Gauge
A term used to denote the physical size of a wire.
General Purpose Circuit
In a residence, a 120 Volt circuit installed to supply power to wall receptacles and lighting fixtures.
Gimmick
A short length of wire soldered onto a circuit component and used as a small adjustable capacitor.
Glass Braid
Used to provide thermal and/or mechanical protection to the underlying insulation of certain types of conductors.
Ground
A conductive connection between an electrical circuit and the earth or other large conducting body to serve as an earth, thus making a complete electrical circuit.
Ground Conductor
A conductor in a transmission cable or line that is grounded.
Ground Insulation
The insulation used between a winding and the magnetic core or other structural parts, usually at ground potential.
Ground Loop
The generation of undesirable current flow within a ground conductor, owing to the circulation currents which originate from a second source of voltage.
Ground Plane
Expanded copper mesh which is laminated into some flat cable constructions as a shield.
Ground Potential
Zero potential with respect to the ground or earth.
HDP
High Density Polyethylene
HMP
High Molecular weight Polyethylene
HPN
Two-conductor, neoprene-insulated heater cord parallel construction. For use in damp locations.
HS
600V-rated rubber-insulated heater cord.
HSJ
Same as type HS but with #18, #16 and # 14 conductors and differing thickness of jacket.
HV
High Voltage
Hard-Drawn Copper Wire
Copper wire that has not been annealed after drawing.
Harness
An arrangement of wires and cables, usually with many breakouts, which have been tied together or pulled into a rubber or plastic sheath, used to interconnect an electric circuit.
Harnessing Devices
Tying faces lacing cords and flexible sleeving which are used for wire, cable bundling, harnessing and holding. Other devices include plastic ties or clamps, spiral-cut plastic tubing and plastic U-shaped trays or ducts.
Hash Mark Stripe
A non-continuous helical stripe applied to a conductor for identification.
Hazardous Location
A location where fire or explosion hazards may exist because of flammable gases, vapors, or liquids; combustible dust; or ignitable fibers or flyings.
Heat Distortion
Distortion of flow of a material or configuration due to the application of heat.
Heat Resistance
The ability of an insulation compound to resist degradation caused by high temperatures.
Heat Seal
Method of sealing a tape-wrap jacket by means of thermal fusion.
Heater Cord
Flexible stranded copper conductor, cotton-wrapped with rubber insulation and asbestos roving.
Helical Stripe
A continuous, colored, spiral stripe applied to a conductor for circuit identification.
Helix
Spiral winding.
Henry
The unit of inductance.
Hertz (Hz)
A term replacing cycles-per-second as an indication of frequency.
Heterogeneous Insulation
A cable insulating system composed of two or more layers of different insulating materials.
Hi-Pot
A test designed to determine the highest voltage that can be applied to a conductor without breaking through the insulation.
High Voltage
Generally, a wire or cable with an operating voltage of over 600 volts.
High-Temperature Wire and Cable
Electrical wire and cables having thermal operating characteristics of 150°C and higher.
Holding Strength
Ability of a connector to remain assembled to a cable when under tension.
Homogeneous Insulation
A complete cable insulation structure whose components cannot be identified as layers of different materials.
Hook-Up Wire
A wire used for low-current, low-voltage (under 1000 volts) applications within enclosed electronic equipment.
Hot Conductor
The underground phase conductors of an electrical system connected to the circuit breaker or fuse.
Hot Stamping
Method of alpha numerical coding. Identification markings are made by pressing heated type and marking foil into softened insulation surfaces.
Hot Tin Dip
A process of passing bare wire through a bath of molten tin to provide a coating.
Hybrid Cable
Multi-conductor cable containing two or more types of components.
Hygroscopic
Capable of absorbing moisture from the air.
Hypalon
DuPont’s trade name for their chlorosulfonated polyethylene, an ozone-resistant synthetic rubber.
IACS
International Annealed Copper Standard
ICEA
Insulated Cable Engineers Association
ID
Internal Diameter
IEC
European Standardization agency; International Electrotechnical Commission.
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISA
Instrument Society of America
ITC
Instrumentation Tray Cable, instrumentation cable that meets tray cable requirements of U.L. Standard # 2250 and used in accordance with N.E.C. Article #727 (see PLTC also)
Ignition Cable
Cable designed for Automotive Ignition Systems.
Impedance
The total opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current or any other varying current at a particular frequency. It is a combination of resistance (R) and reactance (X), measured in ohms.
Impedance Matching
Connecting cables and devices together which have the same impedance value in ohms.
Impulse
A surge of unidirectional polarity.
Impulse Strength
The voltage breakdown of insulation under voltage surges on the order of microseconds in duration.
Impulse Test
An insulation test in which the voltage applied is an impulse voltage of a specified wave shape.
Individual Strand Diameter
The diameter of an individual strand of a stranded wire.
Inductance
The property of a circuit or circuit element that opposes a change in current flow, thus causing current changes to lag behind voltage changes. It is measured in henrys.
Inductive Coupling
Crosstalk resulting from the action of the electromagnetic field of one conductor on the other.
Insertion Tool
A small, hand-held tool used to insert contacts into a connector.
Insulated Conductor
A conductor to which an insulating material has been applied to withstand a predetermined voltage gradient.
Insulated Wire
A conductor of electricity covered with a non-conducting material.
Insulating Joint
A device which mechanically couples and electrically insulates the sheath and armor of contiguous lengths of cable.
Insulation
A material having high resistance to the flow of electric current. Often called a dielectric in radio frequency cable.
Insulation Adhesion
The degree of tightness of the insulation over the base conductor (measured in terms of force required to remove a specified length of insulation from the wire).
Insulation Crimp
The area of a terminal, splice or contact that has been formed around the insulation of the wire.
Insulation Grip
Extended cylinders at the rear of crimp-type contacts designed to accept the bared wire and a small length of its insulation.
Insulation Piercing
A method of crimping whereby lances cut the insulation of the wires and enter into the strands to make electrical contact.
Insulation Resistance
The ratio of the applied voltage to the total current between two electrodes in contact with a specific insulation, usually expressed in megohms-M feet.
Insulation Shield
A layer of semi-conducting material or tape applied directly over the insulation of high voltage cables, usually on cables rated at over 5000 volts. In addition to this layer, some cable constructions include a layer of non-magnetic metal overlapping tape or a number of helically applied small wires.
Insulation System
All of the insulation materials used to insulate a particular electrical or electronic product.
Insulator
A non-conducting substance such as porcelain, plastic, glass, rubber, etc.
Integral Belt
A layer of insulation or semi-conductive material applied by extrusion over two or more insulated, twisted or parallel conductors to form a round, smooth diameter.
Interconnecting Cable
The wiring between modules, between units or the larger portions of a system.
Interconnecting Wire
The physical wiring between components (outside a module), between modules, between units or between larger portions of a system(s).
Interconnection
Mechanically joining devices together to complete an electrical circuit.
Interface
The two surfaces on the contact side of both halves of a multiple-contact connector which face each other when the connector is assembled.
Internal Diameter
The diameter of some internal part or composite of an object which in this case would pertain to wire, cable, etc.
Internal Wiring
Electronic wiring which interconnects components, usually within a sealed subsystem.
Interstices
Voids or valleys between individual strands in a conductor or between insulated conductors in a multi-conductor cable.
Ionization
The act of splitting into or producing ions.
Ionization Voltage (Corona Level)
The minimum value of falling rms voltage which sustains electrical discharge within the vacuous or gas filled spaces in the cable construction or insulation.
Irradiation
In insulation, the exposure of the material to high-energy emissions for the purpose of favorably altering the molecular structure.
JAN Specification
Joint Army-Navy Specification (replaced by current Military Specifications).
Jack
A plug-in type terminal widely used in electronic apparatus for temporary connections.
Jacket
A rubber or synthetic covering applied over primary insulation, braids, shields, cable components or over the cable itself. In fiber optics, a covering, frequently plastic, over a bundle of fibers, or cable which protects against the environment.
Jumper
A short length of conductor used to make a temporary connection between terminals, around a break in a circuit or around an instrument.
Junction
A point in a circuit where two or more wires are connected.
Junction Box
A box used in an electrical circuit to enclose and permit access to electrical connections.
KCMIL
One thousand circular mils.
KEMA KEUR
Approval agency of the Netherlands.
KV
KiloVolt (1000 volts)
KVA
KiloVolt Ampere
KW
KiloWatt
Kevlar
A strong, heat-resistance material used as a binding thread in SEU cable to hold the assembly together.
Kilo
A numerical prefix denoting 1000 (103).
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Kynar
Pennwalt trade name for polyvinylidene fluoride. Typically used as insulation for wire wrap wire.
LVT
Low Voltage Thermoplastic wire, 30 volts or less
Lacing and Harnessing
A method of grouping wires by securing them in bundles of designated patterns.
Lacquer
A liquid resin or compound applied to textile braid to prevent fraying, moisture absorption, etc.
Lacquer Finish
A finish applied over braided wire on cable for appearance, for moisture proofing, to reduce friction and resist abrasion.
Laminated Tape
A tape consisting of two or more layers of different materials bonded together.
Laminates
A build up of layers of material to increase thickness.
Lay
The length measured along the axis of a wire or cable required for a single strand (in stranded wire) or conductor (in cable) to make one complete turn about the axis of the conductor or cable.
Lay Direction
The direction in which the wires of a conductor are twisted, or the twist of conductors in a cable.
Lay Length
The distance required to complete one revolution or over the surface of insulation.
Layer
Consecutive turns of a coil lying in a single plane.
Leaching and Non-Leaching
In a leaching wire, the plasticizer will migrate when exposed to heat. A non-leaching wire will retain its plasticizer under extreme temperature conditions and remain flexible after baking.
Lead
A wire, with or without terminals, that connects two points in a circuit.
Lead Dress
The placement or routing of wire and component leads in an electrical circuit.
Lead-Cured
A cable that is cured or vulcanized in a metallic lead mold.
Lead-In
The conductor(s) that connect the antenna properly to electronic equipment.
Leakage Current
The undesirable flow of current through or over the surface of an insulation.
Life Cycle
A test to determine the length of time before failure in a controlled, usually accelerated, environment.
Limited Smoke
A conductor rating that indicates the product has passed tests for low smoke production, short flame travel and duration.
Limits of Error
The maximum deviation (in degrees of percent) of a thermocouple or thermocouple extension wire from standard emf-temperature to be measured.
Limpness
The ability of a cable to lay flat or conform to a surface.
Line Balance
The degree to which the conductors of a cable are alike in their electrical characteristics with respect to each other, to other conductors and to ground.
Line Drop
A voltage loss occurring between any two points in a transmission line due to the resonance reactance or leakage of the line.
Line Loss
The total of the various energy losses occurring in a transmission line.
Line Voltage
Voltage existing in a cable or circuit.
Listed
Conductors or other equipment included in a list published by a national recognized testing laboratory.
Load
The amount of electrical power required by connected electrical equipment.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A baseband or broadband, interactive, bi-directional, communication system for information exchange on a common transmission line.
Longitudinal Shield
A tape shield, flat or corrugated, applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being shielded.
Longitudinal Wrap
Tape applied longitudinally with the axis of the core being covered.
Loop Resistance
The total resistance of two conductors measured round trip from one end. Commonly used term in the thermocouple industry.
Looping-in
Wiring method which avoids tee joints by carrying the conductor or cable to and from the point to be supplied.
Loss
Energy dissipated without accomplishing useful work.
Loss Factor
The product of the dissipation and dielectric constant of an insulating material.
Lossy Line
A cable having large attenuation per unit of length.
Low Energy Lighting Cable
A two or three conductor cable for outdoor, decorative, recreational or safety lighting applications rated for 150 volts or less.
Low Tension
Low voltage, as applied to ignition cable.
Low-Loss Dielectric
An insulating material that has a relatively low dielectric loss, such as polyethylene or Teflon.
Low-Noise Cable
Cable configuration specially constructed to eliminate spurious electrical disturbances caused by capacitance changes or self-generated noise induced by either physical abuse or adjacent circuitry.
Lubricant
A chemical (typically stearic acid) added to PVC or XLPE insulation materials to facilitate the process of applying the insulation to the conductor.
Lug
Termination, usually crimped or soldered to the conductor, with provision for screwing on to the terminal.
MATV
Master Antenna Television System—a combination of components providing multiple television receiver operations from one antenna or group of antennas normally on a single building.
MC
Metal Clad cable, 2,000 volts max, #18 to 2,000 MCM, interlocked armor or smooth or corrugated metal tube, meets U.L. Standard #1569 and used in accordance with N.E.C. Article # 330
MCM
One thousand circular mils.
MHD
Medium Hard-Drawn
MHO
The unit of conductivity, the reciprocal of an ohm.
MHz
MegaHertz
MI
Mineral Insulated (metal sheath) 85°C dry and wet location, 250°C special application.
MTW
Thermoplastic insulated Machine Tool Wire.
Magnet Wire
Insulated wire intended for use in windings on motor, transformer and other coils for electromagnetic devices.
Magnetic Field
The region within which a body or current experiences magnetic force.
Magnetic Flux
The rate of flow of magnetic energy across or through a surface (real or imaginary).
Magnetic Noise
Caused by change in current level, e.g. A.C. powerline creates magnetic field around the cable; this magnetic field causes the magnetic noise.
Main Disconnect Switch
Part of the service equipment for a building that shuts off the flow of power to the building.
Marker Tape
A tape laid parallel to the conductors under the sheath in a cable, imprinted with the manufacturer’s name and the specification to which the cable is made.
Marker Thread
A colored thread laid parallel and adjacent to the strand in an insulated conductor which identifies the manufacturer and sometimes the specification to which the wire is made.
Meg or Mega
A numerical prefix denoting 1,000,000 (106).
Megarad
A unit for measuring radiation dosage.
Megohmmeter
A testing device that applies a dc voltage to a conductor and measures the resistance (in millions of ohms) offered by the conductor’s insulation.
Messenger
Supporting member, usually a high strength steel wire, used to suspend aerial cable. The messenger may be an integral part of the cable, or exterior to it (lashed messenger).
Metal-Clad Cable (MC)
A multiconductor cable, similar to Type AC, in which the conductors are twisted together under aluminum or steel armor, with or without an overall PVC covering. The armor may be made with an interlocking spiral strip or from a single smooth or corrugated piece of metal.
Mft
1000 ft.
Micro
A numerical prefix denoting one-millionth (10-6).
Microfarad
One-millionth of a farad, commonly abbreviated µF.
Micrometer
An instrument used for measuring diameter usually in thousandths of an inch.
Micromicrofarad
One-millionth of a microfarad (commonly abbreviated uuf, uufd, mmf, mmfd, µµF).
Microwave
A short (usually less than 30 cm.) electrical wave.
Mil
A unit used in measuring diameter of a wire or thickness of insulation over a conductor. One-one thousandth of an inch (.001").
Milivolt
One one-thousandth of a volt.
Mineral Insulated
Cable and thermocouple wire consisting of one or more conductors surrounded by magnesium oxide insulation and enclosed in a liquid- and gas-tight metallic sheathing.
Miniature Wire
Insulated conductors of approximately 20-34 AWG.
Mining Cable
A flame-retardant cable specially constructed to withstand severe physical abuse for underground use in mines or tunnels.
Mis-Match
A termination having a different impedance than that for which a circuit or cable is designed.
Mode
One of the components of a general configuration of a propagating wave font.
Modem
Device which places and receives data signals over a common carrier’s communication facility.
Modulus of Elasticity
The ratio of stress to strain in an elastic material.
Moisture Absorption
The amount of moisture, in percentage, that a material will absorb under specified conditions.
Moisture Resistance
The ability of a material to resist absorbing moisture from the air or when immersed in water.
Molded Plug
A connector molded on either end of a cord or cable.
Monomer
The basic chemical unit used in building a polymer.
Motor Lead Wire
Wire which connects to the fragile magnet wire found in coils, transformers and stator or field windings.
Multi-conductor
More than one conductor within a single cable complex.
Multiple-Conductor Cable
A combination of two or more conductors cabled together and insulated from one another and from sheath or armor where used.
Multiple-Conductor Concentric Cable
An insulated central conductor with one or more tubular stranded conductors laid over it concentrically and insulated from one another.
Multiplexing
Simultaneous transmission of two or more messages over the same cable pair.
Mutual Capacitance
Capacitance between two conductors when all other conductors, including ground, are connected together and then regarded as an ignored ground.
Mylar®
DuPont trademark for polyester film.
N-Conductor Cable
A cable having N-conductors that are insulated from one another. “N” represents the number of insulated conductors in the cable.
N-Conductor Concentric Cable
A cable composed of an insulated central conductor with tubular stranded conductors concentrically twisted around it and separated from each other by layers of insulation.
NEC Type CL2
A Class 2 power-limited type cable for general use applications within a building under NEC Article 725, this type design is “Listed” by UL. These cables meet a 70,000 BTU flame test.
NEC Type CL2P
A Class 2 power-limited cable which is suitable for use in plenums in accordance with NEC Article 725. The cable meets the requirements of UL 910 the Steiner Tunnel test which classifies fire and smoke characteristics. The cable is “Listed” by UL.
NEC Type CL2R
A Class 2 power-limited cable which is suitable for use in riser shafts in accordance with NEC Article 725. These cables meet the UL 1666 flame test and are “Listed” by UL.
NEC Type CL2X
A Class 2 power-limited cable which is suitable for restricted applications (sic...Iess than 0.25" in diameter in residences, exposed lengths less than 10 ft.) or else in raceways under NEC Article 725. These cables meet a VW-1 flame test and are “Listed” by UL.
NEC Type CM
A general application communications cable, “Listed” by UL, for use within buildings under NEC Article 800. It meets the requirements of the 70,000 BTU flame test.
NEC Type FPL
A general application fire protection cable for use within buildings in accordance with NEC Article 760. These cables are “Listed” by UL and meet the 70,000 BTU flame test.
NEC Type MPa
A general use, multipurpose cable which may be employed interchangeably in either a communications (Article 800), power-limited (Article 725) or fire protective (Article 760) application.
NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
NEMKO
Approval agency of Norway.
NFPA
National Fire Protection Association, Administrative Sponsor of the National Electrical Code® (ANSI Standards Committee Cl).
NM
NonMetallic sheathed cable, building wire. (See also Nonmetallic-Sheathed Cable).
NMC
NonMetallic sheathed cable, Corrosion resistant, used in wet or dry location up to 60°C.
NMD90
Non Metallic, Dry rated 90° C, 300 volt rated
NMWU
Non Metallic, Wet rated 60° C, for direct burial (U), 300 volt rated
NSF-2
Same as NS-1 except phase conductors are individually PVC jacketed for better flame retardence (F) and cable is 600 volt rated (2)
National Electrical Code® (NEC)
A set of regulations governing construction and installation of electrical wiring and apparatus in the United States, established by the American National Board of Fire Underwriters.
National Electrical Code® Article 725
The NEC Article which covers remote control signal and communication power limited circuits that are not an integral part of the device or appliance.
National Electrical Code® Article 760
The NEC Article which covers the fire and burglar alarms installation of wire and equipment operating at 600 Volts or less.
National Electrical Code® Article 800
The NEC Article which covers telephone, telegraph as well as outside wiring for fire and burglar alarms.
Neoprene
A synthetic rubber with good resistance to oil, chemicals and flame. Also called polychloroprene.
Neutral Conductor
In multi-phase circuits, the conductor used to carry unbalanced current. In single-phase systems, the conductor used for a return current path.
Nominal (NOM)
The preferred size or weight that is specified or indicated for a certain cable element.
Non-Contaminating
Type of PVC jacket material whose plasticizer will not migrate into the dielectric of a coaxial cable and thus avoids contaminating and destroying the dielectric.
Non-Metallic Sheathed Cable
A cable consisting of insulated conductors jacketed with a nonmetallic material (usually PVC). Includes Types NM-B, NMC-B (corrosion resistant version) and NMS-B (containing signal conductors for home automation).
Nylon
Thermoplastic with good chemical and abrasion resistance.
OAW
OverAll Width
OD
Overall Diameter of a cable, including conductor(s), insulation(s), jacket (if used) and concentric neutral (if used).
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Act. Specifically the Williams-Steiger law passed in 1970 covering all factors relating to safety in places of employment.
OVE
Approval agency of West Germany; Oesterreichischer Verband fur Elektrotechnik.
Off Center
Conductor displaced within the cross-section of its insulation.
Offgassing
Percentage of a specified gas released during the combustion of insulation or jacketing material.
Ohm
A unit of electrical resistance defined as the resistance of a circuit with a voltage of one volt and a current flow of one ampere.
Ohm Law’s
The formula V=I x R (voltage equals current multiplied by resistance), used for calculating voltage drop, fault current and other characteristics of an electrical circuit.
Oil Aging
Cable aged in an accelerated manner by placement in an oil bath and heated to a pre-set temperature for a stated time.
Oil Resistance
The ability of a conductor cable insulation or jacket to resist physical degradation caused by exposure to oil.
Oil-Filled Cable
A self-contained pressure cable in which the pressure medium is low viscosity oil having access to the insulation.
Open Cell
Foamed or cellular material with cells which are generally interconnected.
Open Wiring
An exposed wiring method in which conductors are run in or on buildings, are not concealed by the structure and are supported by cleats, knobs and tubes.
Operating Temperature
The temperature of the conductor insulation while carrying current, including the effect of ambient temperature and heat generated from the electrical current.
Oscillatory Surge
A surge which includes both positive and negative polarity values.
Oscilloscope
Test instrument for visually showing the changes in a varying current by displaying the corresponding voltage wave form on a fluorescent screen.
Outgassing
The dissipation of gas from a dielectric, evidencing decomposition.
Outlet
Any point for tapping off power from an electrical current.
Overall Diameter
Finished diameter over wire or cable.
Overcoat Conductor
A stranded conductor made from individual strands of tin-coated wire stranded together and then given an overall tin coat.
Overcurrent Device
A device such as a circuit breaker of fuse that automatically interrupts the circuit when current (in excess of a given rating), flows through the circuit because of a short circuit, overload or ground fault.
Overlap
The amount the trailing edge laps over the leading edge of a spiral tape wrap.
Oxidation
The process of uniting a compound with oxygen, usually resulting in an unwanted surface degradation of the material or compound.
Oxygen Index
Percentage of oxygen necessary to support combustion in a gas mixture.
Ozone
Reactive form of oxygen, typically found around electrical discharges and present in the atmosphere in small quantities.
PAC
Preassemble Aerial Cable
PCB
Printed Circuit Board
PIC
A general term for any type of plastic insulated telephone cable.
PLSJ
All-rubber, parallel-jacketed, two-conductor, light-duty cord for pendant or portable use in damp locations. 300V.
PLT
Same as PLSJ, except thermoplastic insulation.
PLTC
Power Limited Tray Cable, tray rated cable for power limited circuits, generally shielded pairs/triads and overall shield, meets U.L. Standard #13 and used in accordance with N.E.C. Article #725
POSJ
All-rubber, parallel, light-duty, rip-cord for use on lamps and small appliances. 300V, used up to 60°C.
POT
Thermoplastic, parallel, light-duty rip-cord. 300V, used between 60°C to 105°C.
PSI
Pounds per Square Inch
PTFE
Polytetrafluoroethylene. Packing Fraction (fiber optic): The ratio of active cross-sectional area of fiber core(s) to the total end surface of the fiber, or fiber bundle.
PVC
Polyvinyl chloride, a common thermoplastic insulation and jacketing material for building wire and cable.
Package
An object used for accumulating and dispensing wire and cable for further processing or end use. A few of the more popular types of packages are reels, bobbins, spools, stems and coils.
Pair
Two insulated wires of a single circuit associated together; also known as a “balance” transmission line.
Parallel Conductors
Two or more conductors connected at both ends to form a single current path.
Parallel Pair
A duplex construction of two insulated conductors laid parallel and then covered overall with a braid or jacket.
Parallel Stripe
A stripe applied longitudinally on a wire or cable parallel to the axis of the conductor.
Patch Cable
A cable with plugs or terminals on each end of the conductors to temporarily connect circuits of equipment together.
Patch Cord
Braid covered with plugs or terminals on each end to connect jacks or blocks in switchboards or programming systems.
Pay-Off
The process of feeding a cable or wire from a bobbin, reel or other package.
Peak Voltage
The maximum instantaneous voltage of an electrical circuit.
Percentage Conductivity
Conductivity of a material expressed as a percentage of copper.
Periodicity
The uniformly spaced variations in the insulation diameter of a transmission cable that result in reflections of a signal, when its wavelength or a multiple thereof is equal to the distance between two diameter variations.
Permittivity
See Dielectric Constant.
Peroxide
A chemical added to XLPE to initiate the cross-linking process.
Pick
Distance between two adjacent crossover points of braid filaments. The measurement in picks per inch indicates the degree of coverage.
Pico
A numerical prefix denoting one-millionth of one-millionth (10-12).
Picofarad
One-millionth of one-millionth of a farad. A micromicrofarad or picofarad (abbreviation pf). (See µµF).
Pigment
A chemical added to insulation compounds to impart color for circuit identification.
Pigtail Wire
Fine-stranded, extra-flexible, ropelay lead wire attached to a shield for terminating purposes.
Pitch
In flat cable, the nominal distance between the index edges of two adjacent conductors.
Pitch Diameter
Diameter of a circle passing through the center of the conductors in any layer of a multiconductor cable.
Plain Conductor
A conductor consisting of only one metal.
Plain Conductor
A chemical agent added to plastics to make them softer and more pliable.
Plain Weave
A weave used on woven cables. Threads between the wires, act as binders and give the cable lateral stiffness and linear flexibility. Also called Standard and Square Weave.
Planetary Cabler
A cabler capable of laying down any number of shielded overbraided or jacketed singles, pairs, (called groups) or any combination of them in sequence.
Planetary Twister
A twisting machine whose pay-off spools are mounted in rotating cradles that hold the axis of the spool in a fixed direction as the spools are revolved so the wire will not kink as it is twisted.
Plastic Deformation
Change in dimensions under load that is not recovered when the load is removed.
Plating
The application of one metal over another.
Plenum
The air return path of a central air handling system, either ductwork or open space over a suspended ceiling.
Plenum Cable
Cable approved by a recognized agency such as UL for installation in plenums without the need for conduit.
Plug
The part of the two mating halves of a connector which is movable when not fastened to the other mating half.
Ply
The number of individual strands or filaments twisted together to form a single thread.
Point-to-Point Wiring
An interconnecting technique wherein the connections between components are made by wires routed between connecting points.
Polarization
The orientation of a flat cable or a rectangular connector.
Poly
Polyethylene
Polychloroprene
Chemical name for Neoprene.
Polyester
Polyethylene terephthalate extensively as a moisture-resistant cable core wrap.
Polyethylene
A thermoplastic material having excellent electrical properties.
Polyhalocarbon
A general name for polymers containing halogen atoms. The halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
Polymer
A material of high molecular weight formed by the chemical union of monomers.
Polyolefin
Any of the polymers and copolymers of the ethylene family of hydrocarbons.
Polypropylene
A thermoplastic similar to polyethylene but stiffer and having higher softening point (temperature); excellent electrical properties.
Polyurethane
Class of polymers known for good abrasion and solvent resistance (may be applied in solid or cellular form).
Polyvinyl Chloride
A general-purpose thermoplastic widely used for wire and cable insulations and jackets.
Porosity
Multiple voids in an insulation cross-section.
Potting
The sealing of a cable termination or other component with a liquid which thermosets into an elastomer.
Power Cables
Cables of various sizes, construction and insulation, single- or multi-conductor, designed to distribute primary power to various types of equipment.
Power Factor
The ratio of resistance to impedance. The ratio of the actual power of an alternating current to apparent power. Mathematically, the cosine of the angle between the voltage applied and the current resulting.
Pre-Bond
Stranded wire which has been fused, topcoat-tinned or overcoat-tinned.
Primary
The transformer winding which receives the energy from a supply circuit.
Primary Insulation
The first layer of nonconductive material applied over a conductor whose prime function is to act as electrical insulation.
Printed Wiring
A printed circuit intended to provide point-to-point electrical connections.
Programming
Ability to select various circuit patterns by interconnecting appropriate contacts on one side of a connector plug or panel.
Propagation Delay
Time delay between input and output of signal.
Propagation Time
Time required for a wave to travel between two points on a transmission line.
Prototype
Original design or first operating model.
Proximity Effect
Non-uniform current distribution over the cross-section of a conductor caused by the variation of the current in a neighboring conductor.
Pulling Eye
A device used to pull cable into or from a duct.
Pulling Force
The force exerted on a conductor during installation.
Pulse
Energy which changes abruptly from one intensity to another. May be light energy or electrical energy.
Pulse Cable
A type of coaxial cable constructed to transmit repeated high-voltage pulses without degradation.
Put-Up
Refers to packaging of wire and cable, the term itself refers to the packaged product that is ready to be stored or shipped out.
Quad
A series of four separately insulated conductors, generally twisted together in pairs. Also, a series-parallel combination of transistors with increased reliability because failure of one transistor will not disable the entire circuit.
Quadders
Three-bay machines which can twist four wires together and cable braided and shielded wires with varying lay lengths.
Quadruplex Cable
A cable composed of four conductors twisted together, usually three insulated and bare neutral.
R-F
Radio-Frequency
RA90
Rubber insulated, Aluminum sheath, rated 90° C
REA
Rural Electrification Administration
RG/U
General utility-grade military coaxial cable.
RH
A rubber - or XLPE - insulated conductor for use at 75°C in dry locations.
RHH
Rubber Insulated (higher) Heat Resistant, 90° C, 600 volt, dry and damp location building wire
RHO
A rubber - or XLPE - insulated conductor for use at 90°C in dry locations.
RHW
A rubber - or XLPE - insulated, moisture resistant conductor for use at 75°C in dry or wet locations.
RHW-2
A rubber - or XLPE - insulated, moisture resistant conductor for use at 90°C in dry or wet locations.
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
RTS
Reverse Twist Secondary
RUH
Latex rubber insulated, for use at 75°C in dry locations.
RUW
Latex rubber insulated, for use at 60°C in dry and wet locations.
RW90
Rubber insulated, now XLPE insulated, wet and dry rated 90 degrees C
RWU90
like RW90 except thicker insulation for direct burial (U), 1000 volt rated
Raceway
An enclosed channel designed expressly for holding conductors and cables, including conduit and tubing, wireways and busways.
Random Winding
A winding in rotating equipment wherein the wires do not lie in an even pattern.
Rated Voltage
The maximum voltage at which an electrical component can be operated for extended periods without undue degradation or safety hazard.
Reactance
The opposition offered to the flow of alternating current by inductance or capacitance of a compound or circuit.
Receptacle
A contact device installed at an electrical outlet for the connection of a single attachment plug.
Red Plaque
A powdery, brown-red growth found on silvercoated copper conductors and shield braids.
Redraw
The consecutive drawing of wire through a series of dies to reach a desired wire size.
Reducing Joint
A joint between two lengths of cable where the conductors are not the same size.
Reel
A revolvable flanged device made of wood or metal, used for winding flexible metal wire or cable.
Reflection Loss
The part of a signal which is lost due to reflection of power at a line discontinuity.
Reinforced Sheath
The outermost covering of a cable that has cable sheath constructed in layers with the addition of a reinforcing material, usually a braided fiber, molded in place between layers.
Remanence
The magnetic induction that remains in a magnetic circuit after the removal of an applied magnetomotive force.
Resilient
The property of a substance to return to its original configuration after release of an applied force.
Resistance
A measure of the difficulty in moving electrical current through a medium when voltage is applied. It is measured in ohms.
Resistive Conductor
A conductor with high electrical resistance.
Resistivity
The longitudinal electrical resistance of a conductor of unit length and unit cross-sectional area, expressed in ohms-circular-mils per foot; the opposite of conductivity.
Retractile Cord
A cord having specially treated insulation or jacket so that it will retract.
Return Wire
A ground wire or the negative wire in a direct-current circuit.
Ribbon Cable
A flat cable of individually insulated conductors lying parallel and held together by means of adhesive or woven textile yarn.
Ridge Marker
One or more ridges running laterally along the outer surface of a plastic insulated wire for purposes of identification.
Rigid Bay
Cabling equipment that maintains component sequence and can produce cables with distinct layers.
Rigid Coaxial Cable
Nonflexible coaxial cable, usually a metal tube-armored coaxial cable.
Ring Tongue
A solderless terminal that connects wire to a stud.
Ringing Out
Locating or identifying specific conductive paths by passing current through selected conductors.
Rip-Cord
Two or more insulated conductors in a parallel configuration which may be separated to leave the insulation of each conductor intact.
Rod
The solid round metallic form of copper and aluminum which is the most effective shape from which to draw wire.
Romex®
Nonmetallic sheathed cable.
Romex® ®SIMpull® ®
Nonmetallic sheathed cable with patent pending SIM (Slikqwik™ Infused Membrane) jacket.
Rope Concentric
A group of standard conductors assembled in a concentric manner.
Rope Lay Cable
A concentric, stranded cable designed for flexibility with its individual members made up of strands which are either concentric stranded or bunched.
Rope Lay Conductor
A conductor composed of a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically-laid groups of wires.
Rope Unilay
A group of stranded conductors assembled in a unilay manner.
Round Wire Shields
Shields constructed from bare, tinned or silver-plated copper wire that include braided, spiral and reverse spiral.
Rubber (Wire Insulation):
Term used to describe wire insulations made of thermosetting elastomers, occur naturally or may be made synthetically.
Rulan
DuPont’s trade name for their flame retardant polyethylene insulating material.
Rupture
That point at which a material exceeds its elastic limit and physically comes apart as opposed to yield strength, elongation, etc.
S
Heavy-duty, rubber-insulated portable cord. Stranded copper conductors with separator and individual rubber insulation. Two or more color coded conductors cabled with filler wrapped with separator and rubber jacketed overall. 600V.
SA
Silicone Asbestos insulated, for use at 90°C in dry locations, or at 125°C special application.
SAE
Society of Automotive Engineers
SANZ
Standards Association of New Zealand
SBR
Copolymer of styrene and butadiene. Most commonly used type of synthetic rubber.
SCR
Southwire Continuous Rod
SD
Service Drop cable
SDC
Self Damping Conductors
SEA
Service Entrance cable (type SE, style U) (Armored).
SEMKO
Approval agency for Sweden.
SEOOW
Hard-service portable cord rated for Extra Hard-Usage. Cord is constructed with thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) oil resistant conductors and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) oil resistant outer jacket. Weather resistant and water resistant. Quantum TPE™. 600V.
SER
Service Entrance cable, Style R (Type SE, Style R).
SEU
Service Entrance cable (Type SE, Style U) (Unarmored).
SIS
Rubber insulated Switch Board Wire, for use at 90°C.
SJ
Junior hard-service, rubber-insulated pendant or portable cord. Same construction as type S, but 300V. Jacket thickness is different.
SJEOOW
Junior hard-service portable cord rated for Extra Hard-Usage. Cord is constructed with thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), oil resistant conductors and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), oil- resistant outer jacket. Weather resistant and water resistant. Quantum TPE™. 300V.
SJO
Same as SJ, but Viper®, oil-resistant compound outer jacket. Can also be made “water-resistant.” 300V, for use at 60°C.
SJOO
Same as SJO with oil-resistant insulation.
SJOOW
Same as SJOO with the added UL %2B CSA approval for outdoor use and water resistance.
SJT
Junior hard-service thermoplastic or rubber insulated conductors with overall thermoplastic jacket. 300V, for use at 60°C to 105°C.
SJTO
Same as SJT but oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. for use at 60°C.
SJTW
Service cord, 300 volt junior cord (J), Thermoplastic, Wet rated
SO
Hard-service cord, same construction as type S except oil-resistant Viper® jacket. 600V, 60°C to 90°C.
SOO
Same as SO with oil-resistant insulation.
SOOW
Same as SOO with the added UL %2B CSA approval for outdoor use and water resistance.
SOW
Same as SO with the added UL and CSA approval for outdoor use and water resistance.
SP-1
All-rubber, parallel-jacketed, two-conductor light-duty cord for pendant or portable use in damp locations. 300V.
SP-2
Same as SP-1, heavier construction, with or without third conductor for grounding purposes. 300V.
SP-3
Same as SP-2, heavier construction for refrigerators or room air conditioners. 300V.
SPT
All parallel construction, thermoplastic jacket, two conductor, portable service cord for lamps and small appliances, clocks, radios.
SPT-1
Same as SP-1, except all-thermoplastic. 300V with or without third conductor for grounding.
SPT-2
Same as SP-2, except all-thermoplastic. 300V with or without third conductor for grounding.
SPT-3
Same as SP-3, except all-thermoplastic. 300V with or without third conductor for grounding.
SRD
Portable range or dryer cable. Three or four rubber-insulated conductors with rubber or neoprene jacket, flat or round construction. 300V, for use at 60°C.
SRDT
Same as SRD, except all-thermoplastic with a maximum temperature of 90°C.
SRDT
Hard-service cord, jacketed, same as type S except all-plastic construction. 600V, for use at 60°C to 105°C.
STO
Same as ST but with oil-resistant thermoplastic outer jacket. 600V, for use at 60°C.
SV
Vacuum cleaner cord, two or three-conductor and rubber-insulated. Overall rubber jacket. For light duty in damp locations. 300V, 60°C.
SVO
Same as SV except carolprene jacket, 300V, 60°C.
SVT
Same as SV except all-plastic construction. With or without third conductor for grounding purposes only. 300V, 60°C to 90°C.
Sag (conductor)
The vertical distance between a suspended conductor and an imaginary straight line connecting the points of suspension. Sag may be measured at the mid point between the suspensions, the lowest point of the conductor or at any specified point.
Screw Extender
A machine which accepts solid particles (pellet or powder) or liquid (molten) feed, melts and conveys it through a surrounding barren by means of a rotating screw and pumps it, under pressure, through a die.
Secondary Insulation
A nonconductive material that protects the conductor against abrasion and provides a second electrical barrier.
Sector Cable
A multi-core cable in which the cross section of each conductor is substantially a section of a circle, an ellipse (oval), or a figure intermediate between them; when cabled, contributes to a smaller overall diameter.
Segmental Conductor
A stranded conductor consisting of three or more stranded conducting elements, each element having approximately the shape of the sector of a circle, assembled to give a substantially circular cross-section.
Selenium Cure
Process used to cure neoprene and rubber-jacketed wires and cables.
Self-Extinguishing
Characteristic of a material whose flame is extinguished after the igniting flame source is removed.
Self-Supporting Cable
Made with a steel support strand capable of supporting its own weight across spans.
Semi-Conducting Jacket
A jacket having a sufficiently low resistance so that its outer surface can be kept at substantially ground potential.
Semi-Rigid
A cable containing a flexible inner core and a relatively inflexible sheathing.
Semi-Solid
An insulation cross-section having a partially open space between the conductor and the insulation perimeter.
Semiconductor
A nonconductive material made slightly conductive by the addition of a specific sum of conductive material.
Separator
A layer of insulating material which is placed between a conductor and its dielectric, between a cable jacket and the components it covers or between various components of a multiple-conductor cable.
Serve
A filament or group of filaments such as fibers or wires, wound around a central core.
Service Conductors
Conductors extending from the utility company’s street main connection point of transformer to the service equipment.
Service Drop
An overhead service conductor run from the utility company’s street main connection point or transformer to the service equipment.
Service Entrance
The conductors that connect this service conductors (drop or lateral) to the service equipment of the building.
Service Equipment
The equipment necessary to contain the main power control and cutoff, typically including a main power disconnect, fuses or circuit breakers and related accessories. It is located near the point at which the service entrance enters the building.
Service Lateral
An underground service conductor run from the utility company’s street main to the point of connection to the building’s service entrance or service equipment.
Serving
A wrapping applied over the core of a cable or over a wire.
Sheath
The outer covering or jacket of a multiconductor cable.
Shield
In cables, a metallic layer placed around a conductor or group of conductors to prevent electrostatic or electromagnetic interference between the enclosed wires or external fields.
Shield Coverage
Amount of outer cable covered by the shielding material.
Shield Effectiveness
The ability of a shield to screen out undesirable signals.
Shielded Cable
Usually concerning a high voltage power cable 5000V and above, enclosed in a non-magnetic conducting envelope, constructed that substantially every point on the insulation is at ground potential or some pre-determined potential with respect to ground. Can apply to multiple conductor cable in which each single conductor is shielded or to a multiple conductor cable where the overall assembly is shielded.
Shielded Line
A transmission line whose elements confine propagated radio waves to an essentially finite space inside a tabular conducting surface called the sheath, thus preventing the line from radiating radio waves.
Shielded-Type Cable
A cable in which the surface of the insulation is at ground potential.
Short Circuit
A load that occurs when an ungrounded conductor comes into contact with another conductor or grounded object.
Shunt Wire
A conductor joining two parts of an electric circuit to divert part of the current.
Sidewall Pressure
The pressure exerted on a conductor in the inside of conduit or tubing at a bend.
Signal
A current used to convey information, either digital, analog, audio or video.
Silicone
A material made from silicon and oxygen. Can be in thermosetting elastomer or liquid form. The thermosetting elastomer form is noted for high heat resistance.
Silicone Treating
A silicone liquid treatment applied to insulated conductors to allow for easy jacket stripping.
Single-Faced Tape
Fabric tape finished on one side with a rubber or synthetic compound.
Sizing
Applying a material to a surface to fill pores.
Skeleton Braid
Widely separated braid of fiber copper, or steel, used to hold core together, for reinforcing jacket or for shielding.
Skin Effect
In an AC system, the tendency of the outer portion of a conductor to carry more of the current as the frequency of the AC increases.
Skin Tape
Filled tape coated on one or both sides with a thin film of uncured rubber or synthetic compound to produce a coating suitable for vulcanization.
Sleeve
A braided, knifed or woven tube used over wires or components as insulation tubing. Also called Sleeving.
Solid Conductor
A conductor consisting of a single wire.
Spacer Cable
A distribution cable designed to be used in conjunction with insulating spacers which maintain conductor spacing in overhead line installations. This cable is considered uninsulated and installed likewise, but the covering on the conductors does allow for conductor close proximity and reduce faults due to the touching of tree limbs.
Span
In flat conductors, distance between the reference edge of the first and the last conductor. In round conductors, distance between centers of the first and last conductors.
Spark Test
A test designed to locate pin-holes in the insulation of a wire or cable by application of a voltage for a very short period of time while the wire is being drawn through the electrode field.
Specific Gravity
The ratio of the density (mass per unit volume) of a material to that of water.
Spiral Shield
The ratio of the density (mass per unit volume) of a material to that of water.
Spiral Stripe
A color-coding stripe applied helically to the surface of an insulated wire or cable.
Spiral Wrap
The helical wrap of a tape or thread over a core.
Splice
A connection of two or more conductors or cables to provide good mechanical strength as well as good conductivity.
Split Circuit
A wiring method in which one 240 volt circuit runs from the distribution panel and then split into two 120 volt circuits (a multi-wire circuit).
Sprinkler Control Cable
A direct buried assembly of two through 13 small conductors with an overall jacket used for low voltage (maximum 30 volts) control circuits.
Square Mil
The area of a square, one mil by one mil.
Stabilizer
A metallic compound added to PVC to maintain the integrity of the insulation compound during processing and use.
Standing Wave Ratio
In a transmission line, waveguide or analogous system, a figure of merit used to express the efficiency of the system in transmitting power.
Stay Cord
A component of a cable used to anchor the cable ends at their points of termination and to keep any pull of the cable from being transferred to the electrical connections.
Strand
One of the wires of any stranded conductor.
Strand Lay
The distance of advance of one strand of a spirally-stranded conductor, in one turn, measured axially.
Stranded Conductor
A conductor composed of groups of wires twisted together.
Strap
Square- or rectangular-section, bare conductor, manufactured and used in coil form.
Strip
To remove insulation from a cable.
Structural Return Loss
Backward-reflected energies from uneven parts of the cable structure are termed structural return loss.
Submersible Pump Cable
An assembly of moisture-resistant conductors with or without a jacket.
Sunlight Resistance
The ability of a conductor or cable insulation to resist degradation caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays.
Surface Resistivity
The resistance of a material between two opposite sides of a unit square of its surface. It is usually expressed in ohms.
Sweep Test
A test given to check attenuation by oscilloscope, as in coaxial cable.
Switch
A device used to break the flow of current
T
Thermoplastic
T90/TWN75
Thermoplastic rated 90° C dry/Thermoplastic, wet rated 75° C, Nylon Jacket
TA
Thermoplastic and asbestos insulated switch board wire, 90°C.
TAS
Shielded thermoplastic appliance wire.
TBS
Thermoplastic and fibrous outer braid, 90°C switch board wire.
TBWP
Triple Braided WeatherProof cable.
TC
Non armoured Tray Cable, can be many different CSA approved types that pass additional TC requirements
TEW
Canadian Standard Association type appliance wires. Solid or stranded single conductor, plastic-insulated. 600V, up to 105°C.
TEWN
Same as TEW but with Nylon coating for oil resistance
TF
Fixture wire, thermoplastic-covered solid or 7 strands. up to 60°C.
TFE
Teflon® (TetraFluoroEthylene).
TFF
Same as TF but flexible stranding, up to 60°C.
THHN
Thermoplastic, High Heat, 600V Nylon jacketed building wire up to 90°C.
THW
Thermoplastic vinyl-insulated building wire. Flame-retardant, moisture and heat-resistant. Used in Dry or wet locations, up to 75°C.
THWN
Same as THW but with nylon jacket overall, up to 75°C.
THWN-2
A thermoplastic-insulated nylon-jacketed, moisture resistant conductor used in wet or dry locations up to 90°C.
TW
Thermoplastic vinyl-jacketed building wire, moisture-resistant, up to 60°C.
TW40
Thermoplastic, Wet rated at 60° C and rated at minus 40° C
TW75
Thermoplastic, Wet rated, 75° C
TWU
Thermoplastic, Wet rated at 60° C and rated at minus 40° C, for direct burial (U)
Take-Up
The process of accumulating wire or cable onto a reel, bobbin or some other type of pack. Also, the device for pulling wire or cable through a piece of equipment or machine.
Tank Test
A voltage dielectric test in which the test sample is submerged in water and voltage is applied between the conductor and water as ground.
Tape
A relatively narrow woven or cut strip of fabric, paper or film material.
Tape Cable
A form of multiple-conductor consisting of parallel metal strips imbedded in insulating material.
Tape Wrap
A spirally-applied tape over an insulated or uninsulated wire.
Taped Insulation
Insulation of helically-wound tapes applied over a conductor or over an assembled group of insulated conductors.
Taping
Process of insulating continuous-length, large-diameter wires with tape of nonextrudable materials.
Tarnish
A term used to describe the discoloration of a material caused by exposure to a corrosive environment.
Tear Strength
The force required to initiate or continue a tear in a material under specified conditions.
Teck90
Armored cable developed for Teck mine in Northern Ontario, 90° C rated
Teflon®
DuPont’s trade name for fluorocarbon resins. FEP, PFA and TFE are typical materials.
Tefzel
DuPont’s trade name for a fluorocarbon material typically used as a wire wrap insulation.
Telemetry Cable
Cable used for transmission of information from instruments to the peripheral recording equipment.
Temper
The softness of a metal; terms such as soft-drawn, dead soft, annealed, and semi-annealed are used to describe tempers used for conductor metals.
Temperature Rating
The maximum temperature at which an insulating material may be used in continuous operation without loss of its basic properties.
Tensile Set
The condition when a plastic material shows permanent deformation caused by a stress, after the stress is removed.
Tensile Strength
The pull stress required to break a given specimen.
Tension Member
A member included in a fiber cable to add tensile strength.
Terminals
Metal wire termination devices designed to handle one or more conductors and to be attached to a board bus or block with mechanical fasteners or clipped on.
Test Lead
A flexible, insulated lead wire used for making tests, connecting instruments to a circuit temporarily or for making temporary electrical connections.
Test Reports
The permanent records made by a wire manufacturer of the tests performed on a batch of wire to a specification.
Testset
A device that can supply a current to a circuit under test and read the resulting resistance or leakage current.
Textile Braid
Any braid made from threads of cotton, silk or synthetic fibers.
Themal Shock
The resulting characteristics when a material is subjected to rapid and wide range changes in temperature in an effort to discover its ability to withstand heat and cold.
Thermal Aging
Exposure to a thermal condition or programmed series of conditions for predescribed periods of time.
Thermal Expansion
The expansion of a material when subjected to heat.
Thermal Rating
The maximum and/or minimum temperature at which a material will perform its function without undue degradation.
Thermal Resistance of a Cable
The resistance offered by the insulation to the flow of heat from the conductor(s) to the earth.
Thermocouple Lead Wire
An insulated pair of wires used from the couple to a junction box.
Thermocouple Lead Wire
An insulated pair of wires used from the couple to a junction box.
Thermocouple Wire
A two conductor cable with each conductor employing a dissimilar metal, made up specifically for temperature measurements.
Thermoplastic
A material which softens when heated and becomes firm on cooling.
Thermoset
A material which hardens or sets when heat is applied and which, once set cannot be resoftened by heating. The application of heat is called “curing.”
Three-Phase Current
Current delivered through three wires, with each wire serving as a return for the other two.
Three-Phase Three-Wire System
An alternating current supply system comprising three conductors over which three-phase power is sent.
Three-Way Switch
A type of switch used in pairs to control one piece of electrical equipment from two different points.
Three-Wire System
A D.C. or single-phase A.C. system comprising three conductors, one of which is maintained at a potential midway between the potential of the other two.
Tin Overcoat (TOC)
Tinned copper wire stranded, then coated with pure tin.
Tinning
There are two types: Electrotinned and Hot-Dipped. Electrotinned is the process of electroplating the surface of a conductor material with a tin or tin-lead alloy. Hot-Dipped is the process of pulling the conductor material through a molten bath of the tin or tinlead alloy.
Tinsel Wire
A low-voltage stranded wire with each strand, a very thin conductor ribbon, spirally-wrapped around a textile yarn.
Topcoat
Bare (untinned) copper wire stranded then coated with pure tin.
Tracer
A means of identifying polarity.
Tracer Stripe
When more than one color coding stripe is required, the first (or widest) is called the base stripe, whereas the narrow stripes are termed tracer stripes.
Transmission
Transfer of electric energy from one location to another through conductors or by radiation or induction fields.
Transmission Cable
Two or more transmission lines. See Transmission Line.
Transmission Line
A signal-carrying circuit with controlled electrical characteristics used to transmit high-frequency or narrow-pulse signals.
Transmission Loss
The decrease or loss in power during transmission of energy from one point to another. Usually expressed in decibels.
Transposition
Interchanging the relative positions of wires to neutralize the effects of induction to, or from other circuits or, to minimize interference pickup by the lead-in during reception.
Tray
A cable tray system is an assembly of units or sections and ancillary filings, made of noncombustible materials, used to support cables. Cable tray systems include ladders, troughs, channels, solid bosom trays and similar structures.
Tray Cable
A factory-assembled multiconductor or multi-pair control cable approved under the National Electrical Code for installation in trays.
Tree Wire
A cable designed to be used n conjunction with insulators, for overhead distribution, having heavy covering which reduces faults due to the touching of tree limbs in heavily wooded areas. (See space cable, sometimes one in the same).
Triaxial
A three-conductor cable with one conductor in the center, a second circular conductor shield concentric with the first and a third circular conductor shield insulated from and concentric with the first and second, usually with insulation, and over a braid or impervious sheath overall.
Triboelectric Noise
Noise generated in a shielded cable due to variations in capacitance between shielding and conductor as the cable is flexed.
Triple Cable
A cable composed of three insulated single conductors and one bare conductor all twisted together. It may or may not have a common covering of binding.
Triplex Cable
A cable composed of either three insulated single conductor cables twisted together or two insulated single conductor cables twisted together with a bare conductor or messenger.
True Concentric
A cable in which each successive layer has a reversed direction of lay from the preceding layer.
Tubing
A tube of extruded nonsupported plastic material
Twin Cable
A pair of insulated conductors twisted, sheathed or held together mechanically and not identifiable from each other in a common covering.
Twin Coaxial
A configuration containing two separate complete coaxial cables laid parallel or twisted around each other in one complex.
Twin Line
A transmission line which has a solid insulating material, in which the two conductors are placed parallel to each other.
Twinner
A device for twisting together two conductors.
Twisted Pairs
A cable composed of two small insulated conductors twisted together without a common covering.
UD
Underground Distribution
UF
Thermoplastic Underground Feeder and branch circuit cable.
UHF
Ultra High Frequency, 300 to 3,000 MHz.
UL
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc
URC
Weatherproof cable type, TBWP, DBWP as developed by the University Research Commission.
URD
Underground Residential Distribution.
USE
Underground Service Entrance conductor or cable
USE1
Same use, temperature and voltage rating as USEB. Construction is individually insulated and jacketed conductors twisted together to form complete cable
USE2
Same as USE except 90° C wet and dry rated
USEB
Underground Service Entrance, style B, neutral conductor wires wrapped over parallel phase conductors, PVC jacket overall, -75 or -90 for 75° or 90° C, 600 volt rated
UTE
Approval agency for France; Union Technique de l’Electricite.
Ultraviolet (UV) Inhibitor
Chemicals in a PVC insulation compound protect the insulation from breaking down when exposed to sunlight.
Ultraviolet Degradation
The degradation caused by long time exposure of a material to sunlight or other ultraviolet rays containing radiation.
Unbalanced Line
A transmission line in which voltages on the two conductors are unequal with respect to ground.
Unidirectional Concentric Stranding
A stranding where each successive layer has a different lay length, thereby retaining a circular form without migration of strands from one layer to another.
Unidirectional Stranding
A term denoting that in a stranded conductor, all layers have the same direction of lay.
Unilay Strand
A conductor constructed with a central core surrounded by more than one layer of helically-laid wires, with all layers having a common length and direction of lay.
V
Varnished cambric, 85°C dry location.
VDE
West Germany approval agency.
VHF
Very High Frequency, 30 to 300 MHz.
VIP
Vulcanized Interlinked Polyethylene
VSWR
Volume Standing Wave Ratio
VW-1
A flammability rating established by Underwriters Laboratories for wires and cables that pass a specially designed vertical flame test (formerly designated FR-1-).
Velocity of Propagation
The speed of an electrical signal down a length of cable compared to speed in free space expressed as a percent. It is the reciprocal of the square root of the dielectric constant of the cable insulation.
Volt
A unit of electromotive force.
Volt
A unit of electromotive force.
Voltage
The term most often used in place of electromotive force, potential difference or voltage drop to designate the electric pressure that exists between two points and is capable of producing a current when a closed circuit is connected between two points.
Voltage Classification
A category of conductors or equipment based on voltage ratings.
Voltage Drop
A term used to express the amount of voltage loss in a conductor of given size and length drawing a given current.
Voltage Rating
The highest voltage that maybe continuously applied to a wire in conformance with standards or specifications.
Voltage Standing Wave Ration (VSWR)
The ratio of the maximum effective voltage to the minimum effective voltage measured along the length of a mismatched radio frequency transmission line.
Voltage Withstand Test
A field or factory test in which a conductor is subjected to a higher than normal AC or DC voltage.
Volume Resistivity
The electrical resistance between opposite faces of a 1 cm. cube of insulating material commonly expressed in ohms/centimeter.
Vulcanization
A chemical reaction in which the physical properties of an elastomer are changed by reacting it with sulfur or other cross-linking agents.
WG
With Ground
WOG
WithOut Ground
WP
WeatherProof
Wall Thickness
The thickness of the applied insulation or jacket.
Water Absorption Test
A test to determine the water absorbed by a material after a given immersion period.
Waterblocked Cable
A cable constructed with no internal voids in order to allow no longitudinal water passage under a given pressure.
Watt
A unit of electric power.
Watt
An installation directly buried in earth, exposed to the weather, or in an area subject to saturation with water or other liquids.
Wave Length
The distance, measured in the direction of propagation, of a repetitive electrical pulse or waveform between two successive points that are characterized by the same phase of vibration.
Wetting
The ability of a material to absorb moisture.
Wicking
The longitudinal flow of a liquid in a wire or cable due to capillary action.
Wire
Wire can be divided into two areas: (1) a slender rod or filament of drawn metal, (2) a rod of drawn metal filament covered with insulation. These can be classified as drawn metal wire and insulated wire respectively.
Wire Gauge
A system of numerical designation of wire sizes.
Wire Nut
A closed-end splice that is screwed on instead of crimped.
Wire Wrapped Connection
A solderless connection made by wrapping bare wire around a square or rectangular terminal with a power or hand tool.
Wire Wrapping Tools
Portable electric tools and automatic stationary machines used to make solderless wrapped connections of wires to terminals.
Wire and Cable Devices
Tying faces lacing cords and flexible sleevings which are used for wire and cable bundling, harnessing and holding. Other devices include plastic ties and clamps, spiral-cut plastic tubing and plastic U-shaped trays or ducts.
Wire and Cable Marker
Device for marking identification of wire and cable.
Wire and Lead Cutters
Tools for cutting range from plier-type cutters to semiautomatic or fully automatic machines. Integrated with other wire processing operations such as stripping, forming and terminating.
Wrapper
An insulating barrier applied as a sheet or tape wrapped around a co~l periphery.
XHHW
Thermoset (X) higher (H) Heat resistant Wet rated building wire, 600 Volt, 90° C dry and 75° C wet rated, meets U.L. Standard #44
XHHW-2
An XLPE-insulated, moisture resistant conductor for use in wet or dry locations up to 90°C.
XLPE
Crosslinked PolyEthylene
Yield Strength
The minimum stress at which a material will start to physically deform without increase in load.
Zytel
DuPont’s trade name for nylon resins.
810 - Invoice

The transaction set can be used to provide for customary and established business and industry practice relative to the billing for goods and services provided.

812 - Credit/Debit Adjustment

The transaction set can be used to notify a trading partner of an adjustment or billback and may be used to request an adjustment or billback. It identifies and contains the details and amounts covering exceptions, adjustments, credits, or debits for goods or services. This transaction set is multidirectional between trading partners

816 - Organizational Relationships

This transaction set can be used to transmit pertinent information about a parent organization, its members and the relationship of a member to another member, and/or to the parent organization. A parent organization could be an association, a multi-hospital system, a chain of retail stores, a holding company, etc. This transaction set can be used to convey the identity and relationship of members to a parent organization; identify eligibility to purchase under the terms and conditions negotiated by a parent organization on behalf of its members; and to update application databases.

820 - Electronic Funds Transfer

Payment order/ Remittance Advice: The transaction set can be used to make a payment, send a remittance advice, or make a payment and send a remittance advice. This transaction set can be an order to a financial institution to make a payment to a payee. It can also be a remittance advice identifying the detail needed to perform cash application to the payee's accounts receivable system. The remittance advice can go directly from payer to payee, through a financial institution, or through a third party agent.

824 - Application Advice

The transaction set can be used to provide the ability to report the results of an application system's data content edits of transaction sets. The results of editing transaction sets can be reported at the functional group and transaction set level, in either coded or free-form format. It is designed to accommodate the business need of reporting the acceptance, rejection or acceptance with change of any transaction set. The Application Advice should not be used in place of a transaction set designed as a specific response to another transaction set (e.g., purchase order acknowledgment sent in response to a purchase order).

832 - Price/Sales Catalog

The transaction set can be used to provide for customary and established business and industry practice relative to furnishing or requesting the price of goods or services in the form of a catalog.

850 - Purchase Order

The transaction set can be used to provide for customary and established business and industry practice relative to the placement of purchase orders for goods and services. This transaction set should not be used to convey purchase order changes or purchase order acknowledgment information.

852 - Product Activity Data

The transaction set can be used to advise a trading partner of inventory, sales, and other product activity information. Product activity data enables a trading partner to plan and ship, or propose inventory replenishment quantities, for distribution centers, warehouses or retail outlets. The receiver of the transaction set will maintain some type of inventory/product movement records for its trading partners to enable replenishment calculations based on data provided by the distributor, warehouse or retailer.

855 - Purchase Order Acknowledgement

The transaction set can be used to provide for customary and established business and industry practice relative to a seller's acknowledgment of a buyer's purchase order. This transaction set can also be used as notification of a vendor generated order. This usage advises a buyer that a vendor has or will ship merchandise as prearranged in their partnership.

856 - Advance Shipping Notice

The transaction set can be used to list the contents of a shipment of goods as well as additional information relating to the shipment, such as order information, product description, physical characteristics, type of packaging, marking, carrier information, and configuration of goods within the transportation equipment. The transaction set enables the sender to describe the contents and configuration of a shipment in various levels of detail and provides an ordered flexibility to convey information. The sender of this transaction is the organization responsible for detailing and communicating the contents of a shipment, or shipments, to one or more receivers of the transaction set. The receiver of this transaction set can be any organization having an interest in the contents of a shipment or information about the contents of a shipment.

864 - Test Message

The transaction set can be used to provide users with a capability to electronically move messages, contracts, explanations, and other one-time communications. It is the intent of this transaction set to provide electronic communication (messages) for people, not for computer processing. The use of the transaction set to transmit quasi or unique transaction set standards is discouraged. The use of the Text Message transaction set demands of the sender certain detailed information about the recipient. The transaction set's purpose is to provide communication to the recipient in some human-readable form. The recipient's network will dictate what capabilities are available for delivery of the information. It is the responsibility of the sender to obtain this information and include it in the transmission

997 - Functional Acknowledgement

The transaction set can be used to define the control structures for a set of acknowledgments to indicate the results of the syntactical analysis of the electronically encoded documents. The encoded documents are the transaction sets, which are grouped in functional groups, used in defining transactions for business data interchange. This standard does not cover the semantic meaning of the information encoded in the transaction sets.